Sweden installed the first commercial Kamyr continuous digester.
Capable of producing 50 tons per day, it featured a down
flow digester with a balanced high pressure pocket feeder.
Kraft pulping established its rise to dominance in the chemical
pulp markets due to two successful developments: the Tomlinson
Recovery Furnace and the perfection of multistage bleaching,
which incorporated a chemical sequence with chlorine dioxide.
IPC developed improved methods for measuring the absolute
reflectance of high-reflectance media and established an industry
standard that was implemented by the National Bureau of Standards.
The development and commercial use of chlorine dioxide made
it possible to produce very white pulp from trees such as the
southern pine. The availability of chlorine dioxide therefore
was instrumental in establishing the Southeastern United States
as a dominant pulping area.
Research at IPC led to the development of a device to form
a single flute of corrugated medium so that it could be tested
for its crush resistance. The forming was done under similar
heat and pressure conditions found on corrugators.
The use of polymers as retention aids made it possible to
use large amounts of inexpensive fillers.
The development of AKD cellulose reactive size led to the
use of paperboard for milk cartons, made on the acid side of
cylinder machines and wax coated inside and out after the carton
was formed. Refrigeration and handling frequently caused wax
to flake off into the milk.
Research conducted by Van den Akker and Hardacker of IPC helped
define quantitative relationships between fiber morphology
and paper physical properties.
A U.S. patent was assigned to G.R. Sears, R.D. Rae, and J.A.
Van den Akker for their research on impact and acceleration
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.A. Van den Akker for his research
on creep testing apparatus.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on
the process of making improvements related to bendable sheets.
A U.S. patent was assigned to B.W. Rowland and G.D. Knight
for their research on the porous web treating apparatus.
Size press solutions containing high levels of fillers increased
solids in coated board production by up to 35%.
A U.S. patent was assigned to J.W. Swanson for his research
on the dextrinization of mannogalactans.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research on
the methods of making corrugated boards.
A Canadian patent was assigned to J. d'A Clark and S.D. Wells
for IPC research on an apparatus for forming fibrous sheets
A U.S. patent was assigned to Otto Kress for his research on
oxidizers for black liquor.
Professor Brauns of IPC authored a definitive book on lignin
After the experiences of World War II, the Korean War had
relatively little impact on the paper industry because plans
for mobilization had been clearly laid in 1948 and 1949.
IPC's student population, which had dropped significantly
during World War 11, rebounded to 60 students.
IPC research identified practical uses for sulfite liquor,
including drugs to fight histoplasmosis and an airborne disease
known as Valley Fever.
IPC directed multiyear program in American Newspaper Publishers
Association to develop methods for measuring the printability
The development of new paper products was impaired by a serious
shortage of properly trained personnel.
A U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research
on method of making bivanillyl.
The paper house constructed during World War II was dismantled
in good condition after eight years.
An English patent was assigned to R.C. McKee for his research
on the process of making improvements to container board
Kyle Ward Jr., of IPC, was elected chairman of the American
Chemical Society's Division of Cellulose Chemistry. Dr. Ward
was credited with synthesizing the first member of nitrogen
mustard group, chemical agents that were used in the treatment
of cancer. He also performed pioneer research on naval stores
such as turpentines, gums, and resins and on cellulose products,
The first suction pickup rolls were introduced to remove sheets
from the wire and increased machine speeds to 2000 feet per
IPC initiated a baseline study for the continuous evaluation
of commercial corrugating mediums. The industry sent samples
of their medium to IPC for a comparative evaluation on the
IPC pilot corrugator.
Stock deaeration (i.e., deculator) was added to the paper
machine to remove air from stock, improve production rates,
formation, and manufacturing efficiencies.
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.C. McKee and G.R. Sears for
their research on methods and apparatus for testing paperboard.
The IPC analysis lab answered thousands of requests for testing
of paper products each year, most notable was the lawsuit
settled on the spontaneous combustion of insulation. IPC
proved that the material actually resisted burning.
New paper products were identified through IPC research including
a paper base used for new types of carpet, draperies, lamp
shades, flavored fish wrappers.
Improved surface bonding characteristics for paper were the
result of studies of embossing and calendering performed by
IPC dedicated a new activities building. Board Chairman Ernest
Mahler said that IPC now had 125,000 square feet of working
area, and its staff had been built up to include 215 people.
Total cost of the building was $368,700.
A U.S. patent was assigned to S.D. Wells for his research on
the production of fiber from flax straw.
Working with IPC scientists, the United States Movidyn Corporation
developed a formulation to control the microorganisms causing
slime formation in pulp and paper mills.
A U.S. patent: was as assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research
on vanillimino ethyl ether and its salts of anhydrous acids.
July 13, 1953 IPC created a new department for graphic arts.
A U.S. patent was assigned to M.F. Skalmusky, Kimberly & Carlton
Root, and R.C. McKee for their research on methods of testing
Harry Lewis made a plea for better utilization of wood resources
stating "that the industry must break with old traditions
and get into the business of making alcohol, yeast, lignin
ethers, or vanillin."
The first commercial use of a cold blow in the bottom of a
Kamyr digester improved paper strength by up to 20%.
IPC instrumentation research studies led to the development
U.S. production of pulp and paper increased beyond 40 million
tons per year.
National Cash Register introduced the first carbonless paper
(NCR Paper) for use in producing duplicate forms.
A Canadian patent was assigned to Sulfite Products Corporation
for research on filters for ultraviolet radiations.
Standards developed at IPC for fungus resistance in paper and
paperboard were presented for approval to the National Standards
U.S. patent was assigned to Irwin A. Pearl for his research
on salts of vanillic acid esters.
IPC received a grant to study usage of large amounts of spent
Bark treatments developed at IPC led to new additives for well-drilling
lubricants, storage batteries, and leather products.
The U.S. paper industry annually employed 269,000 people and
spent 9 billion dollars in product enhancements.
In 1954, IPC had a budget of $1,000,000, 225 staff members,
40 graduate students, and 16,000 volumes in the Library. Construction
was started on the IPC General Activities Building.
A. Wiley of IPC received certificate of merit from Nash Conservation
Awards program for his outstanding industry sponsored research
to reduce stream pollution. IPC started major research program
to identify new uses of spent sulfite liquor.
IPC celebrated its 25th anniversary at the 18th annual Executives'
IPC acquired personal memorabilia of Dard Hunter, a renowned
collector of paper and related materials from the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology.
IPC began investigation of genetic influences of wood fiber
The first commercial yeast production facility was opened and
it produced 6,000 tons of dry yeast per year from the wood
sugars of cooked wood fibers in the pulping process. Distilled
sulfite liquor was used to create artificial beef bouillon
while other byproducts of the yeast production were also
used to create nucleic acid as a diet supplement for the
Other chemical byproducts of yeast production included a leather
tanning compound, stiffening agents used in making paperboard
and adhesives, and a synthetic rubber. Sulfite liquor was used
in making battery plates because it reduced acid scale buildup
and tripled the life of the battery. Research was also conducted
on wood sugar derivatives for use as an animal feed supplement
and for the treatment of ketosis. Other projects that showed
promise from waste products from pulp and paper manufacturing
included protein rich feeds for mink, human food supplements,
concrete dispersing agent, and several pharmaceuticals, including
a remedy for athletes foot.
A U.S. patent was assigned to D.L. Wolfe and E.A. Ruddy for
their research on paper splicing. Byproducts of the pulping
process were used to create new commercial products such
as vanilla flavoring, additives for gasoline, artificial
beef flavoring, and road binding materials.
Per capita paper consumption in the United States was 220
lbs in 1920,254 lbs in 1940, rose to 338 lbs in 1954, and was
expected to grow to 500 lbs by 1975.
IPC, TAPPI, and CPPA jointly sponsored a four-day International
Fundamental Research Conference. Delegates from Europe, Asia,
and Canada were among the 225 attending the symposium.
Three hundred world authorities from the paper industry attend
an educational conference held at IPC on the fundamentals of
the paper machine.
Contracts for new products under development at IPC included
wall-paper that kills flies, paper grown in a test-tube, paperboard
boxes that did not soften when wet, a paper raincoat, a built
in drinking straw that would appear automatically when the
soda bottle was opened, and a fish wrapper treated with taste-bud
stimulants which improved the taste of the fish.
IPC maintains 23 different insect colonies which were used
in research for the creation of bug-resistant food containers.
IPC research on combining hard and soft wood fibers for pulping
gave paper companies an economical advantage.
IPC was recognized as a world center for research in pulp,
paper, and paperboard industries.
The Institute had 239 staff members, including 200 educational
and research staff, and 39 administrative and support personnel.
New fungicidal coatings for citrus paperboard cartons allowed
fruits to be shipped without refrigeration. The new boxes saved
shippers and fruit growers money due to lower weight and lack
of refrigeration requirements.
By 1954,90% of California's citrus crop was moved to market
in paperboard containers rather than wood crates.
IPC developed methods for removing asphalt impurities in waste
paper used to create recycled paperboard.
At IPC, paper-like fibers were being grown from thousands of
microscopic fungi in a large vessel containing water and
dextrose. Within 48 hours, 40 lbs of pulp-like fibers were
removed from the vessel. Paper produced by using the artificial
fiber could not be distinguished from tree-bred paper.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the flow of
fiber suspension and the effects of turbulence.
IPC was appointed custodian of TAPPI fiber library which contained
more than 359 specimens.
Forest products companies initiated a project for the genetic
improvement of southern pine with emphasis on growth and
yield. CLUPAK, an extensible paper used in bulk packaging,
was first introduced and commercialized.
Pocket ventilators were first introduced in France as Madeline
rolls to enhance drying by uniform extraction of moist air.
The Concora Medium Fluter, an improvement of the single-fluter,
was designed by the Container Corporation of America and
built by Liberty Engineering. This device has remained relatively
Five new married student housing units were being constructed
John G. Strange was appointed third president of IPC. He served
until 1974. 1956 In the Southern United States, pulp and
paper were now as important as cotton and fruit thanks to
good forestry practices, scientific research, and the partnership
of government and industry. Paper was the fifth largest U.S.
J.P. Brezinski of IPC conducted research on the creep properties
of paper. A single-facer corrugator was donated to IPC. The
machine had the capability of corrugating speeds in excess
of 1000 ft/min and corrugate in several flute profiles. Support
equipment such as roll stands, preheaters, numerous corrugating
rolls, and medium and liner showers were also included in
A U.S. patent was assigned to R.P. Whitney, Shu-Tang Han, and
J.L. Davis of IPC for their research on the treatment of
spent sulfite liquor.
A U.S. patent was assigned to W.M. Van Horn, B.F. Sherna, W.H.
Shockley, and J.H. Conkey for their research on sheets comprising
filaments of fungi.
Controlled crown rolls were installed to keep sheets from wrinkling
on the web and improve machine speed. IPC developed a wax
treated corrugated box for the wet and cold storage conditions
needs of the poultry industry.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the importance
of fiber strength in sheet strength measurements.
A panel of experts told pulp and paper industry executives
at IPC that despite possession of the world's greatest fiber
resource for paper, Russia would not contribute greatly to
the world's fiber need. IPC ranked 51st of 104 universities
in the U.S. for chemical doctorals.
J.A. Van den Akker of IPC conducted research on the structural
aspects of bonding. IPC had 270 staff members and 66 regular
students. Most of the building complex on the Appleton campus
was complete and more than 130 companies were members of
the Institute, representing approximately 80% of U.S. production
of pulp and paper.
In the late '50s and early '60s, milk carton grade paperboard
was made on the fourdriner SBK and was polyethylene coated.
The development of xerography and other nonimpact printing
processes began to create large new markets for the thermal
papers later used in computers, copiers, and facsimile units.
IPC started product development of low ash filter papers for
the U.S. Air Force.
An automatic computer, described as a baby brother to the gigantic
electronic brains used in the military and space programs,
was installed at IPC.